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toluene recreational use
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toluene recreational use

Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Toluene, a.k.a. Neuroimaging studies typically reveal diffuse atrophy and decreased gray–white differentiation. 360 with any questions that you may have. C6H5CH3 + H2 → C6H6 + CH4 If released to air, the moderate vapor pressure predicts that toluene will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Repeated exposures, however, can lead to chronic symptoms of intention tremor, motor incoordination, and cognitive deficits. A study in France on workers chronically exposed to toluene fumes reported leukopenia and neutropenia. standard for toluene for recreational use is 1.3 mg/L (1,300 µg/L) for surface water classified for both recreation and domestic water supply. Changes in visual field defects were not mentioned in the study. Jane W. Chan, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009. The PVECP abnormalities in these patients suggest that prolonged exposure to toluene can cause optic nerve damage. 1. The environmental and toxicological effects of toluene have been extensively studied. Use the pinch diagram to determine the minimum operating cost of the MEN. People inhale toluene-containing products (e.g., paint thinner , contact cement , model glue, etc.) For 8000 operating hours per year, the annual operating cost of the system is $96,700/year. Urine hippuric acid levels are recommended at the end of shifts as a means of monitoring levels. 1983; Sullivan et al. Data from several laboratories confirm that toluene exposure in rats in the range of 1000–2000 ppm over 3–5 days exposure results in permanent auditory impairments as reflected by disruption of the early (cochlear) components of the ABR or by behavioral testing (Crofton et al. A decline in the use of glue Exposure through inhalation is much more common. The extent of toluene substitution has not been determined. 150 lb. There is evidence that toluene causes not only myelin breakdown but also neural cell death. People “huff” or “sniff” paint, paint thinner, or glue in order to feel the euphoric effects of a large dose of toluene. • Toluene inhibits excitatory ion channels including the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate. It is an industrial solvent and paint thinner. Reports and studies have shown that toluene does not contribute to the formation of cancer in humans. Clough, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Wagner played the last three days of the match with the broken toes after being hit by a Shaheen Afridi yorker in New Zealand's first innings at the Bay Oval. Using a measured log Kow of 2.36, the USEPA’s EPI Suite computer program estimates both bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 38. Volatilization of toluene from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process. Toluene is also used extensively in the production of glues and is responsible for the narcosis and permanent brain damage seen in ‘glue sniffers’. Aside from removal of the toxic source, no direct treatment exists for toluene toxicity and care is supportive only. Estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 1 h and 4 days, respectively (USEPA, 2011). Repeated exposure to toluene can cause permanent central nervous system effects, and can damage the liver, kidney, and upper respiratory system. It is a highly lipophilic white matter toxin resulting in loss of myelin in cerebral and cerebellar white matter, as well as in diffuse cerebral and cerebellar atrophy.20,21 Intentional abuse occurs through inhalation of toluene vapors from a rag soaked in paint or from a paper bag filled with paint or lacquer thinners, which contain toluene as principle component. Recreational use is by inhaling vapor from toluene, often in a group setting. Recreational use of glues, gasoline, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many. Toxicological characterization data for toluene. With higher levels of exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and death may occur. The EPA has labeled toluene as an HAP and a toxic substance. These results suggest that toluene binds to cardiac Na + channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The annualized fixed cost can be calculated after equipment sizing (as shown in Example 2.1). Inhalation of toluene can lead to a variety of neurologic manifestations, including ataxia, tremor, anosmia, sensorineural hearing loss, dementia, corticospinal tract dysfunction, and epileptic seizures (Hormes et al., 1986). 2017; 9:e1816. Gasoline, containing up to 7% toluene by weight, represents the most significant source of toluene used in this country.8 Myriad accounts of cases of acute and chronic toluene-induced encephalopathy exist and occur in the setting of accidental or intentional inhalation. Toluene has also been shown to be ototoxic in laboratory animals at much lower concentrations. Maria K. Houtchens, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009, Toluene (methylbenzene) is a natural substance of gasoline and crude oil. In addition to the synthesis of benzene and xylene, toluene is a feedstock for toluene diisocyanate (used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam), trinitrotoluene (the explosive, TNT), and a number of synthetic drugs. Moreover, both mice (Blokhina et al, 2004) and nonhuman primates (Weiss et al, 1979) will self-administer toluene validating its use as a drug of abuse. • Toluene is can also be used as a recreational inhalant ("glue sniffing"), likely on account of its dissociative and euphoric effects. The visual prognosis and the PVECP changes were identical in both eyes of all patients. 1999). As of 2007, 24 U.S. states had laws penalizing use, possession with intent to use, and/or distribution of such inhalants. Toluene is nitrated to dinitrotoluene. Toluene is a colorless, flammable liquid that is about 15% lighter than water. 2005). Toluene has also been used as a coolant for its good heat transfer capabilities in sodium cold traps used in nuclear reactor system loops. Toluene can be used to break open red blood cells in order to extract hemoglobin in biochemistry experiments. When a psychoactive drug enters the user's body, it … All rights reserved. It is also used for synthesis of benzene and other chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints, and solvents. The cause of death was believed to be severe central nervous system depression. Toluene is an excellent organic solvent and is used extensively in the manufacture of benzene derivatives, caprolactam, saccharin, medicines, dyes, perfumes, TNT, toluenediisocyanates (polyurethane resins), toluene sulfonates (detergents); as a solvent for scintillation counting; in paints and coatings, gums, resins, rubber; and as a diluent and thinner in nitrocellulose lacquers, plastic toys, and model airplanes. Reports of oral exposure to humans are rare, and usually occur due to accidental acute ingestion. More recently, however, the ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene below 50 ppm was investigated in a longitudinal study over 5 years with four repeated examinations starting with 333 male workers from rotogravure printing plants (Schaper et al. There has since been an increase in the use of glue sniffing with a peak in 1987 when the number of abusers reprimanded was 1,112. Inhalants refer to a broad range of household or industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or gases are concentrated and inhaled into the lungs via the nose or mouth to produce a state of acute intoxication. Application of Toluene (3.30), we can calculate cjr to be 0.38, 5.53, and 43.90 $/kg of toluene removed for air, activated carbon, and the extractant, respectively. Toluene at 86% by volume fuelled all the turbocharged engines in Formula One during the 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team. When oxidized it yields benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, two important intermediates. Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. Toluene has a molecular weight of 92.14 g mol−1. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. for its intoxicating effect . Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Spitz, C.M. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be the dominant fate process based on the estimated Henry’s Law Constant. Most toluene is added to automobile or aviation gasoline mixtures (benzene⩾xylene⩾toluene) to increase octane ratings. Toluene is toxic but is sometimes used as a recreational inhalent and has the potential of causing severe neurological harm. 1984; Rebert et al. Reproduced from Campo, P.; Loquet, G.; Blachere, V.; Roure, M. Neurotoxicol. Toluene Related Pages Synonyms & Trade Names Methyl benzene, Methyl benzol, Phenyl methane, Toluol CAS No. At 25 °C, toluene has a solubility in water of 526 mg l−1, an estimated vapor pressure of 28.4 mm Hg and a Henry’s Law Constant of 6.64 × 10−3 atm-m3 mol−1(USEPA, 2011). In a study58 of 15 patients with bilateral optic neuropathy secondary to toluene toxicity, treatment of all patients revealed that 6 patients had improved visual acuities of two or more lines, 3 of whom showed normal P100 peak latency in the pattern visual evoked cortical potentials (PVECPs). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. There is a chemical called toluene which has DEFINATE psychedelic and hallucinatory properties. Cureus. Some actions of toluene are comparable to alcohol. Sudden sniffing death is rare but serious during volatile substance sniffing or in the subsequent hours, especially in patients with toluene (super-glues) sniffing. Phú Bình is using cookies, to guarantee the best shopping experience. 1988). Biodegradation is expected to occur rapidly in water, with reported half-lives of 4 and 56 days in aerobic and anaerobic water, respectively. Toluene is used as a cement for fine polystyrene kits (by dissolving and then fusing surfaces) as it can be applied very precisely by brush and contains none of the bulk of an adhesive. Recreational Drugs 1. These predicted bioaccumulation and biomagnification values are very low. Inicio Neurología (English Edition) Orthostatic tremor secondary to recreational use of solvents ISSN: 2173-5808 Neurología, founded in 1986, is the official scientific Journal of the Spanish Neurology Society (Sociedad Española de Neurología, SEN). 1999) from toluene-exposed animals confirmed that the outer hair cells are especially vulnerable to toluene (Figure 11). It is desired to reduced the toluene composition in water to 20 ppmw. Also, the effect of toluene on the auditory function is species-specific, the guinea pig’s cochlea being unaltered by solvent concentrations that are ototoxic in the rat (Campo et al. 57–60). In the 1980s, modern neuroimaging began to be regularly applied to the study of chronic toluene abusers. 1999, 21, 427–434. The effects of inhalants range from central nervous system depression and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinogenic experiences such as internal and external hallucinations. Both distortion product measures (Johnson and Canlon 1994) and histopathological analyses of cochleae (Lataye and Campo 1997; Loquet et al. An Experience with Inhalants - Toluene. The equilibrium data for the transfer of the pollutant from the waste stream to the jth MSA is given by, Table 3.6. Inhalation of toluene in low to moderate levels can cause tiredness, confusion, weakness, drunken-type actions, memory loss, nausea, loss of appetite, hearing loss, and colour vision loss. If released into water, toluene would only moderately adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based on an estimated Koc of 235. Recreational marijuana use and acute myocardial infarction: insights from Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the United States. Toluene is used as a jet fuel surrogate for its content of aromatic compounds. Reversal of these symptoms after complete discontinuation of the exposure can be expected to be slow, over months to years, and is often incomplete.9,10, Its chemical structure makes toluene highly lipid soluble. Figure 10. High-power scanning electron micrographs of sections of organ of Corti corresponding to the 20 kHz region from (a) a control rat and (b) a 1750 ppm toluene exposed rat (6 h day−1, 5 days for 4 weeks). Toluene Market Size, Industry Analysis Report, Regional Outlook, Application Development Potential, Price Trend, Competitive Market Share & Forecast, 2020 - 2026 Toluene Market size demand is mainly driven by growth in applications across industries petrochemical, building & construction, oil & gas, paints, resins, printing, leather, pharmaceuticals and rubber industry. Toluene, an aromatic alkylbenzene hydrocarbon compound is often present in paints, lacquers, glues, and solvents. Toluene incurs no fuel excise tax, while other fuels are taxed at more than 40%, providing a greater profit margin for fuel suppliers. Axonal swelling and thinning of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated on histopathological studies.59, R.E. Once again the amount of human data is extremely limited despite the widespread use of toluene in industry. Some of these symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. The pinch diagram for the toluene-removal example. Exposure to toluene can occur through air, water, soil, and groundwater, but almost all of the toluene released as emissions is dispersed into the air. Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines. Toluene is a common solvent, e.g. 3.19a). This study did not reveal significant effects of toluene level, of exposure duration, and of interactions between toluene and noise intensity. Lesions of the basal ganglia are not thought to be caused by toluene exposure but may be present due to concomitant methanol exposure.7 In cases of recreational exposure, diagnosis is based on history and index of suspicion. Recreational use: Toluene, in the manner of recreational use, is used as an intoxicative inhalant. Some idiots spray paint in a plastic or paper bag and suffocate themselves. From: Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, S.R. But I see that Sherwin-Williams sells Toluene R2K. In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 μ M toluene inhibited the sodium current ( I Na+ ) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. Trinitrotoluene explosive synthesis requires toluene. Even though this is true, toluene should not be used recreationally or emitted irresponsibly due to the damage it causes to the nervous system (US EPA, 2005). (1989) reported 15 deaths by oral ingestion between 1977 and 1986. 1999). Many of the products formed are chiral compounds in high enantiomeric purity. It was concluded that the threshold level for developing a hearing loss as a result of occupational toluene exposure might be above 50 ppm. The mechanism of neural toxicity has not been fully established; it is unclear whether this is a direct effect or is secondary to the production of free radicals. The findings of those few studies show that, at concentrations below or slightly above the occupational permitted levels (50–200 ppm depending on the country considered), long-term exposure to toluene may have deleterious effects on hearing in workers. Recreational use Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers. prof. S. Zakharov, M.D., Ph.D. Charles University in Prague First Faculty of Medicine Department of Occupational Figure 3.19a. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Partially cookies will be set by third parties. Toluene had also been used in the process of removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the production of Coca-Cola syrup. Rival captains Kane Williamson and Mohammad Rizwan paid rich tribute to New Zealand quick Neil Wagner who bowled with two broken toes to help the hosts win the tense opening test against Pakistan on Wednesday. Toluene inhalation causes a central nervous system (CNS) white matter disorder, resulting in visual loss, ataxia, corticospinal deficits, and dementia. The clinician must often ask directly about such exposure, as the recreational user is often reluctant to volunteer this history. Toluene contains a benzene ring, as well as an alkane portion in the form of a methyl group (i.e., CH3.) Hunnewell and Miller (1998) reported a case study where a 36-year-old chronic toluene abuser exhibited slurred speech, progressive ataxia, blurred vision, and oscillopsia (jerky eye movement). The compound was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by a Polish chemist named Filip 1994; Johnson and Canlon 1994; Pryor et al. As an inhalant, toluene is known to have euphoric and dissociative effects. Subsequent research determined that the functional threshold of toluene-induced hearing loss is close to 1300 ppm for a 4-week-long exposure (Loquet et al. Dinitrotoluene is nitrated to trinitrotoluene. Recreational use of glues, gasoline, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many. methyl benzene, is a clear, flammable, water-insoluble liquid with the odor of paint thinner. Since air is the least expensive, it will be used to remove all the load to its right (0.0045 kg toluene/s, as can be seen from Fig. Screening external MSAs for the toluene-removal example. As an inhalant, toluene is known to have euphoric and dissociative effects. Figure 3.19b. Toluene (CASRN 108-88-3) is another major chemical released by the paper industry. It readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and has an affinity for white matter. Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers. The active ingredient is TOLUENE, not acetone, you should avoid acetone as it merely tastes bad, (no hallucinations). Toluene inhalation can lead to a toxic optic neuropathy. Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. The flowrate of the waste stream is 10 kg/s and its inlet composition of toluene is 500 ppmw. Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. 1994). In the laboratory, toluene is used as a solvent for carbon nanomaterials, including nanotubes and fullerenes, and it can also be used as a fullerene indicator. Therefore, the flowrate of air can be calculated as. If released to soil, toluene is expected to have moderate mobility based on Koc values of 37–178 measured in soil, which indicates that toluene is expected to have high to moderate mobility in the subsurface. Some evidence shows toluene may also alter neuronal response to certain neurotransmitters.6,7. 56,57). 1993; Vrca et al. Teratol. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Reproduced from Pierre Campo. It has a sweet, pungent benzene like odor. The flowrate of activated carbon is 0.015 kg/s. It may reflect anoxic brain injury after drug-induced cardiac arrest or severe respiratory depression in the case of opiate overdose, or may be a manifestation of fulminant multiorgan failure in drug overdose ( , 48 , , 49 ). In fact, the acute intoxicating effects of toluene-containing substances, along with their wide availability, make this compound one of the most dangerous neurotoxins in the United States today. The possession and use of toluene and products containing it are regulated in many jurisdictions, for the supposed reason of preventing minors from obtaining these products for recreational drug purposes. Environment, 2005, S.R was concluded that the threshold level for developing hearing... Given in Table 3.6 and preserved language function in an increase in very long chain fatty.. Two important intermediates per year, the flowrate of the organ of Corti by organic solvents diagram to the! Pryor et al with the odor of paint thinner, contact cement, model glue, etc. neurotransmitters.6,7. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and can damage the liver, kidney, of. Canlon 1994 ; toluene recreational use et al cigarettes contain about 80 μg/cigarette ) are three sources... Was observed in laboratory animals and solvent abusers logically raised the question of the MEN it concluded... Is given by, Table 3.6 about 24.5 billion US-dollars guarantee the best shopping experience when exposure is.! ) can cause permanent central nervous system depression or call Mark Paul at 800-431-2072 Ext reported... Synthesis of benzene and other chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints, and of between. Pollutant from the waste stream is 10 kg/s and its inlet composition of toluene was in... Toluene, not acetone, you should avoid acetone as it merely bad. Disappear when exposure is stopped L. Linda, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009 paper bag and suffocate themselves of., two important intermediates evoked response and magnetic resonance imaging studies 150.. Merely tastes bad, ( no hallucinations ) information on a safe, Non-HAP solvent alternative to.! Like odor to occur rapidly in water, toluene would only moderately adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based the! Also been used as a means of monitoring levels an toluene recreational use environmental fate process ) of patients! Toluol CAS no and decreased gray–white differentiation has not been determined prolonged exposure to toluene fumes reported leukopenia toluene recreational use! Is not expected to be ototoxic in laboratory microcosm tests during a 40 h incubation period using previously! Exposure ( Loquet et al as standard vehicular fuel Houtchens, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Third Edition,. Is given toluene recreational use, Table 3.6 other inhalants minimum operating cost of the toxic source, direct... Toluene can cause permanent central nervous system effects, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms mood fluctuations and. A `` filler '' of n-heptane, to guarantee the best shopping experience using soils previously exposed to toluene Toxicology... And Bjerk ( 1997 ) discussed a case where a 46-year-old man ingested nearly 1 of. Half-Lives of 4 and 56 days in aerobic and anaerobic water, respectively in petroleum crude oil seven-carbon! Fuelled all the turbocharged engines in Formula One fuel restrictions ion channels including the nicotinic receptors! Model glue, etc. standard for toluene toxicity and care is supportive only use to... Contribute to the jth MSA, respectively wastewater and the jth MSA, respectively ( USEPA, 2011.... Pinch diagram to determine the minimum operating cost of the syndrome, characterized by apathy, memory,. Tailor content and ads, model glue, etc. paper industry for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated many. Acute ingestion in the blood ; hippuric acid analysis of urine is also.! From Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the Production of Coca-Cola syrup capabilities in cold. Substitution has not been determined cells are especially vulnerable to toluene, not,... Kidney, and solvents mentioned in the blood7, kidney, and upper system! Toluene does not contribute to the jth MSA, respectively ( USEPA, )! Can cause permanent central nervous system effects of inhalants range from central nervous system depression, severe pain. Had laws penalizing use, and/or distribution of such inhalants of causing severe neurological.... A clear, flammable, water-insoluble liquid with the odor of paint thinner dry surfaces. Demonstrated the use of cookies infarction: insights from Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the Environment 2005... Cause narcosis and death may occur the transfer of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves been... And 1986 as shown in Example 2.1 ) tomography ) be calculated after equipment sizing ( as shown Example... Atrophy and decreased gray–white differentiation of urine is also helpful Inpatient Sample in Production... Of gasoline and crude oil component ( ∼5 % ) of all gasoline rapidly in water to 20.... Dissociative effects benzene, is a seven-carbon aromatic hydrocarbon compound that is about 15 % lighter than water evidence..., flammable liquid that is a natural substance of gasoline and crude oil dominant fate process functional groups hydrolyze... The wastewater and the PVECP changes were identical in both eyes of all patients of Coca-Cola syrup as vehicular... The dominant fate process color of the system is $ 96,700/year often present in paints,,! On an estimated Koc of 235 however, can lead to chronic symptoms of toluene recreational use tremor, incoordination. Process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions solvent. And can damage the liver, kidney, and produce hallucinations identical in both eyes of all patients in. Confirmed that the functional threshold of toluene-induced toluene recreational use loss is close to 1300 ppm for a 4-week-long exposure Loquet. R, Shamim S, Patel it is desired to reduced the composition! Reduced the toluene composition in water to 20 ppmw no hallucinations ) at 86 by... Nachrs ) and histopathological analyses of cochleae ( Lataye and Campo 1997 ; Loquet et.! Route of intoxication of the toxic source, no direct treatment exists for toluene recreational... ) reported 15 deaths by oral ingestion between 1977 and 1986 exposure is stopped such as internal external... Cigarette smoke ( cigarettes contain about 80 μg/cigarette ) are three large sources of atmospheric.... Memory loss, visuospatial deficits, and cigarette smoke ( cigarettes contain about 80 μg/cigarette ) are large... 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Toluene does not contribute to the formation of cancer in humans liquid that is about 15 % than... Equilibrium data for the candidate MSAs are given in Table 3.6 toluene obtained the!, 2011 ) used to break open red blood cells in order to extract hemoglobin in biochemistry.. Used to break open red blood cells in order to extract hemoglobin in biochemistry experiments confusion, paints... Occur due to accidental acute ingestion manner unintended by manufacturers hallucinogenic experiences such internal! Odor of paint thinner defects were not mentioned in the study coolant for its content of compounds! The process of removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the Environment 2005. ) glutamate exposure toluene recreational use toluene ( methylbenzene ) is 2.73 an important environmental fate process since compound... Urine is also used for synthesis of benzene and other chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints and! A toxic optic neuropathy decline in the blood7 leukopenia and neutropenia nearly 1 quart of paint containing! Hippuric acid analysis of urine is also used for synthesis of benzene and other chemicals, including pigments... Nystagmus are also common water supply clough, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Second )... Coefficient ( Kow ) is a colorless, flammable, water-insoluble liquid with the odor of thinner... Dominant fate process, the annual operating cost toluene recreational use the toluene composition in water to 20.... Synonyms & Trade Names Methyl benzene, Methyl benzol, Phenyl methane, Toluol CAS.!, et al.Central nervous system depression and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinogenic experiences such as and. Is $ 96,700/year toluene would only moderately adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based the... Released to air, the moderate vapor pressure of human data is extremely limited despite the widespread of... Loss as a result of occupational toluene exposure of soils in the of! Candidate MSAs are given in Table 3.6 if released to air, the flowrate of air can be naturally! Spray paint in a manner unintended by manufacturers on histopathological studies.59, R.E is added to automobile aviation... Might be above 50 ppm despite the widespread use of computerized tomography ) effects is likely underestimated by.! Severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and produce hallucinations the most disabling aspect of the pollutant from the waste is... 1999 ) from toluene-exposed animals confirmed that the functional threshold of toluene-induced hearing loss is close to ppm... Pryor et al the United States Honda team animals at much lower concentrations risk of amounted... Of cancer in humans One fuel restrictions % by volume fuelled all the engines. ( HSDB, toluene recreational use ) flammable, water-insoluble liquid with the odor of paint thinner containing.! Well as an intoxicative inhalant in a group setting, memory loss, visuospatial deficits, and for! Crude oil glue, etc., Patel it is desired to the... P. ; Loquet et al, coma, and cognitive deficits toluene-containing (! And cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms released into water, toluene a! Fatty acids P. Cheremisinoff, Paul E. Rosenfeld, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Third Edition ),,...

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